The 5x5 Standard provides a mechanism for states to implement sovereignty over internal improvements:
Federalist #45 (Madison): "The powers delegated by the proposed Constitution to the federal government are few and defined. Those which are to remain in the State governments are numerous and indefinite. The former will be exercised principally on external objects, as war, peace, negotiation, and foreign commerce; with which last the power of taxation will, for the most part, be connected. The powers reserved to the several States will extend to all the objects which, in the ordinary course of affairs, concern the lives, liberties, and properties of the people, and the internal order, improvement, and prosperity of the State."
- "general welfare"
- September 14, 1787 vote restricting Federal infrastructure
- State Constitutions anti-monopoly clauses
- US Constitution
- Ratification documents underscore State sovereignty over internal improvements
- 21 Presidential vetoes explain why powerful Congressmen should not tax all Americans for pork projects in their districts.
- The Confederate States of America Constitution clarified the "post Roads" restriction