The Boston Tea Party was a demonstration against the general government's mercantile transportation monopoly that triggered a war. To prevent rebuilding that path to war, on Sept 14, 1787 the Constitutional Convention voted 8 states to 3 that States are sovereign over "internal improvements." Federal taxing to "provide welfare" in the form of "internal improvements" is limited to defending free speech by assuring letters can be delivered via "post Roads" if no other option is available, with "No Preference" in the facilities of commerce of one state over another.

The Preamble is the Federal mission statement mandating the Federal government "provide for the common defence" and restricting it to only "promote the general welfare". Innovating the "general welfare" depends on the Liberty of "We the People".

The Federalist Papers explains the Constitution's Divided Sovereignty directly in #1-46. Division of powers in the 3 branches of the Federal government are discussed in #47-87. Federalist #45 (Madison) provides a summary relative to the Divided Sovereignty (Federalism) of "internal improvements."

Madison explained Divided Sovereignty and "general welfare" in Congress in 1792.

As President, Madison issued the first of 21 Presidential veto messages enforcing the Preamble, "post Roads" and "No Preference" Clauses.

Because of repeated efforts by powerful Congressmen, such as Henry Clay, to tax all Americans for pork highway projects, when the Confederate States copied the Constitution, they put the "post Roads" and "No Preference" clauses into their Commerce Clause.

The 17th Amendment (1913) removed State representation in the Senate and reduced the cost of political corruption from buying half a state legislature to merely contributing to a Senate campaign. Lobbying interests poured funds into electing Senators that would sacrifice state sovereignty to consolidated Federal control of commerce, highways, energy, health, etc...

The Federal-Aid Highway Act of 1916, began Federal "Top-Down" control of transportation. Wilson's Executive Order of July 1918 monopolized communications. The 18th Amendment (1919) consolidated Federal police powers over the commercial activities of individual Americans (although repealed by the 21st Amendment, the police agencies and powers were retained). FDR's New Deal consolidated control over commerce and agriculture. The Rural Electrification Act of 1936 monopolized Federal control over power. Unintended civilization killers have been created:

Constitutions Divided Sovereignty, separating Federal war-powers from commercial interests:

Restoring state sovereignty over "internal improvements", and for all taxing for welfare, is essential to restore Federalism and end Climate Change and oil-wars. Similar to the Internet existing since 1968 but being blocked from commercializing by Federal Socialism, solutions to urban traffic problems, oil-wars, and Climate Change existed since 1972. Two options for local and state governments are to:

  1. Adopt the general 5x5 Standard to restore free markets for transportation networks that are 5 times more efficient than the Federal monopoly that mandates the 25 mpg efficiency of the Model-T.
  2. Issue specific franchise ordinances to allow specific networks Rights of Way based on exceed 5 times the efficiency of the Federal monopoly.

Next Steps...

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